As a GI analyst you are equipped with the skills to perform a range of univariate and multivariate spatial operations. Your next objective is to develop an approach that makes good practice of those techniques. Cartographical modelling is a way of organising and expressing the methods by which variables and operators are selected and used to develop a GIS model that delivers useful information to a user. Many analysts use cartographic modelling as a core activity in GIS design so let's examine why they use it and how it can benefit your spatial analysis.

This topic also considers how to design and specify a solution. The cartographic model can be implemented using any one of the many macro languages that accompany most GIS software applications and you will benefit from developing skills to use such languages. If you take a wider look at the relationship between GIS and mainstream IS/IT developments then it is apparent that the geospatial analyst also needs to be able to communicate beyond the geospatial domain. This topic introduces Unified Modeling Language as a general purpose modelling language and outlines the relationship between UML and GIS.