Task Develop a framework for ideas in GIS. Read this overview that was written by James Petch and has been modified by Nigel Trodd. In it you are advised to explore several definitions of GIS and guided to an article by Charles Convis (1996). In his thoughts on the nature of GIS Convis takes a slightly different approach but retains the main idea of GIS being a combination of human, technical and theoretical components, which work in concert.

A Framework for Ideas on GIS
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Source: Trodd N, 2005. A Framework for Ideas on GIS. Modified from Petch J, unknown. UNIGIS: Manchester.
The Nature of GIS
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Source: Convis C, 1996. The Nature of Geographic Information Systems. ESRI Conservation Program Seminar Series. <http://www.conservationgis.org/gishistory/gishistry2.html> URL last accessed 04-10-2006.

Task GIS has a history and we can use that to test our ideas of a framework for GIS. Read Longley et al. (2001) and explore the GIS Timeline to identify key events in the development and growth of GIS from the 1960's to the present day. How well can you categorise the Major Events That Shaped GIS using the ideas contained in your framework?

A Brief History of GIS
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Source: Longley PA, Goodchild MF, Maguire DJ and Rhind DW, 2001. Geographic Information Systems and Science. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. p. 10 - 13.

GiS TiMELine
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Source: Dodge M, Doyle S, Haklay M and Rana S, 2000. The GIS Timeline. London: Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London. URL last accessed 2006-10-02. Note: only the Quick Search by decade was working when last accessed.

The Major Events That Shaped GIS
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Source: Longley PA, Goodchild MF, Maguire DJ and Rhind DW, 2001. Geographic Information Systems and Science. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. p. 12 - 13.
GIS Evolution and Future Trends
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Early GIS Technology and Its Expression — traces the early phases of GIS technology (Computer Mapping, Spatial Database Management and Map Analysis/Modeling)

Contemporary GIS and Future Directions — discusses contemporary GIS and probable future directions (Multimedia Mapping and Spatial Reasoning/Dialog)

Pathways to GIS — explores different evolutionary paths of GIS adoption for five disciplines (Natural Resources, Facilities Management, Public Health, Business and Precision Agriculture)

A Multifaceted GIS Community — investigates the technical shifts and cultural impacts of the rapidly expanding GIS tent of users, application developers and tool programmers

Source: Berry JK, 2006. GIS Evolution and Future Trends, Topic 27 in Map Analysis. Fort Collins, Colorado: BASIS Press. <http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/MapAnalysis/Topic27/Topic27.htm> URL last accessed 30-10-2006.

Task Your task is to identify the presence and role of GIS components in different applications.
Applications of GIS Source: In Longley PA et al. (eds.), 1999. Geographical Information Systems: principles, techniques, management & applications. New York: Wiley.
  Urban Planning and GIS Yeh A G-O. Ch 62, p. 877-888.
  The Rebuilding of a Country: the Role of GIS in South Africa MacDevette DR, Fincham RJ and Forsyth GG. Ch 65, p. 913-924.
  Health and Health Care Applications
Gatrell A and Senior M. Ch 66, p. 925-938.
  Monitoring Land Cover and Land-Use for Urban and Regional Planning Bibby P and Shepherd J. Ch 68, p. 953-965.
  GIS and Landscape Conservation
Aspinall RJ. Ch 69, p. 967-980.
  Local, National and Global Applications of GIS in Agriculture Wilson JP. Ch 70, p. 981-998.
  GIS in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Larsen L. Ch 71, p. 999-1007.
Geographic Information Systems in Sustainable Development
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Source: FAO Research, Extension and Training Division, 2004. Geographic Information Systems in Sustainable Development. <http://www.fao.org/sd/eidirect/gis/eigis000.htm> URL last accessed 2006-10-05.
A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone
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Source: Ocean Studies Board, 2004. A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting. <http://www.nap.edu/books/0309091764/html/> URL last accessed 2006-10-05.
Mapping Disasterous Natural Hazards Using Global Datasets
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Source: Peduzzi P, Dao H and Herold C, 2005. Mapping disasterous natural hazards using global datasets, Natural Hazards, 35, 265-89.
Satellite Remote Sensing as a Tool in Lahar Disaster Management Source: Kerle N and Oppenheimer C, 2002. Satellite remote sensing as a tool in lahar disaster management, Disasters, 26, 140-160.
GIS and Volcanic Risk Management
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Source: Pareschi MT, Cavarra L, Favalli M, Gianni F and Meriggi A, 2000. GIS and volcanic risk management, Natural Hazards, 21, 361-379.
GI Science, Disaster and Emergency Management Source: Cutter S, 2003. GI Science, disaster and emergency management, Transactions in GIS, 7, 439-438.
GIS and Disasters: Planning for Catastrophe
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Source: Goodchild MF, 2006. GIS and disasters: Planning for catastrophe, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 30, 227-229.
Task Read Rhind (1993) and the Introduction to Ch1 in Longley et al. (2001) and complete the e-Tutorial on what you have read.
Maps, information and geography: a new relationship? Read this article that asks fundamental questions about the way we think about maps.

Source: Rhind D, 1993. Maps, information and geography: a new relationship? Geography 78 (2), 150-159.

Why Does GIS Matter?
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Source: Longley PA, Goodchild MF, Maguire DJ and Rhind DW, 2001. Geographic Information Systems and Science. Wiley, Chichester, UK. Pp. 2-9.

e-Tutorial: Characterising Geographical Problems
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