Read some of the works of Joseph Berry, a long-time advocate of spatial analysis in GIS. Your objectives are to identify procedures for implementing methods of and tools for analysis in GIS and explain reasons why spatial analysis can improve an organisations effectiveness.
Spatial Reasoning for Effective GIS

Source: Berry JK, 1995. Spatial Reasoning for Effective GIS, New York: Wiley.

Bridging GIS & Map Analysis
[ URL ] [ pdf ]

Source: Berry JK, 2004. Bridging GIS & map analysis: identifying and utilizing spatial relationships, Proceedings of the ASPRS Annual Conference, Denver, Colorado. <http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/present/ASPRS_04/Paper/ASPRS _2004_Berry.htm> URL last accessed 2-12-2007.

An increasing number of public and private sector organisations regard spatial analysis as a valuable problem-solving tool. Explore geospatial models in different application domains.
Dynamic Environmental Modelling in GIS
[ pdf ]
Source: Karssenberg D and De Jong K, 2005. Dynamic environmental modelling in GIS: 1. Modelling in three spatial dimensions, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 19, 559 - 579.
Applied GIS and Spatial Analysis Source: Stillwell J and Clark G (eds), 2004. Applied GIS & spatial analysis. Chichester: Wiley.
Broad-scale Ecosystem Modelling Source: Cramer W, Leemans R, Schulze ED, Bondeau A and Scholes RJ, 1999. Data needs and limitations for broad-scale ecosystem modelling. In: Walker B, Steffan W, Canadell J and Ingram J (Eds.), The terrestrial biosphere and global change. Cambridge: CUP.
Analysing Location
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Source: Berry JK, 2003. Sections 5.1-5.3 in Ch 5 Analysing location, Analyzing geo-business data. Fort Collins, Colorado: Red Hen Farming Systems. <http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/Books/AnalyzingGBdata/GB_CaseStudy_T5.pdf> URL last accessed 2-12-2007.
Integrating GIS and Environmental Models Source: Clarke K, Parks B and Crane M (Eds.), 2000. Integrating geographical information systems (GIS) and environmental models, Selected papers from the 4th international Conference (GIS/EM4), September 2000, Banff, Canada, Journal of Environmental Management, 59, 223-9.

Analysing Mapped Data
[ URL ] [ pdf ]

Bending Distance
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Beyond Mapping Abnormal Averages
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Source: Berry JK, 2004/5. Overview of Spatial Analysis and Statistics, Topic 24 in Beyond Mapping III: a compilation of GeoWorld articles. <http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/MapAnalysis/Topic24/Topic24.htm> URL last accessed 2-12-2007.

Investigate why Mark Gahegan contrasts the roles, methodologies and capabilities of statistical methods with those of inductive machine learning methods, as they are used inferentially in geographical analysis.
Is inductive machine learning just another wild goose (or might it lay the golden egg)?
[ ScienceDirect ] [ pdf ]

Source: Gahegan M, 2003. Is inductive machine learning just another wild goose (or might it lay the golden egg)? Int J Geographical Information Science, 17, 69-92.