Task Work through the notes, identifying the processes that underpin spatial data analysis. Andy Mitchell emphasises the need to start by asking the right question whilst Joseph Berry observes the relationships between data, information and knowledge.
Spatial Queries and Analysis
[ ppt ]
Source: Trodd N, 2005. Spatial queries and analysis. GeoImaging and GeoInformatics.
Process of Spatial Analysis
[ pdf ]
Source: Mitchell, A., 1999. The ESRI Guide to GIS Analysis. Volume 1: Geographic Patterns & Relationships. Redlands: ESRI Press. Pp.11.
An Understanding GIS
[ URL ]
Source: Berry JK, unknown. An understanding GIS, in Topic 21: Human Dimensions of GIS, Map Analysis. <http://www.innovativegis.com/basis /MapAnalysis/Topic21/Topic21.htm#Understanding URL last accessed 23-11-2006.
Task The GIS Primer by David J. Buckley provides an overview of issues and requirements for implementing and applying geographic information systems technology. Read this chapter in which Buckley reviews some of the data manipulation techniques required to prepare a data set and describes the (basic) analytical capabilities of a typical GIS. View the lectures from the workshop to identify applications of spatial analysis. Previously, Berry (1987) identified four types of spatial operation:
  • reclassification and generalization,
  • topological overlay,
  • measuring distance and connectivity, and
  • characterising neighbourhoods.
Data Analysis
[ URL ] [ pdf ]
Source: Buckley D J, 1998. The GIS Primer - An Introduction to Geographic Information Systems: Data Analysis. Fort Collins: Berry & Associates Spatial Information Systems. URL last validated 2005-09-20.
Spatial Pattern Analysis
[ URL ]
Source: Getis A, Goodchild M and Weekes JR, 2002. Video extracts of lectures presented at the Summer Workshop on Spatial Pattern Analysis in a GIS Environment <http://www.csiss.org/streaming_video/2002/spa.html> URL last accessed 6-11-2011.
Task Early desktop GIS software were designed to handle spatial data that conformed to either a raster or vector data model. Software developments mean that most (but not all) modern applications can display data of different model types and some have functions to analyse raster and vector data. The lesson we have learned is that data models have strengths and weaknesses and that you need to map these against the specific requirements of a task before choosing a data model. For example, the raster data model is the preferred data model for most spatial analysis but the vector model is preferred for network analysis.Complete these short courses from the ESRI Virtual Campus to gain skills and understanding to answer these questions:
  • how are spatial data captured and stored as rasters?
  • how does the raster data model represent spatial entities? 
  • which algorithms are used to perform spatial analysis on raster data? and
  • how can you modify the display of raster data?
Basics of Raster Data (for ArcGIS 10)
[ URL ]
Source: ESRI. Basics of raster data (for ArcGIS 10). Redlands: ESRI Virtual Campus. <http://training.esri.com/gateway/index.cfm?fa=catalog.webCourseDetail&courseid=2030> URL last accessed 6-11-2011.
Displaying Raster Data using ArcGIS 10
[ URL ]
Source: ESRI. Displaying raster data using ArcGIS 10. Redlands: ESRI Virtual Campus. <http://training.esri.com/gateway/index.cfm?fa=catalog.webCourseDetail&courseid=2071> URL last accessed 6-11-2011.
Organising Raster Data using ArcGIS 10
[ URL ]
Source: ESRI. Organising raster data using ArcGIS 10. Redlands: ESRI Virtual Campus. <http://training.esri.com/gateway/index.cfm?fa=catalog.webCourseDetail&courseid=2044> URL last accessed 6-11-2011.
Processing Raster Data using ArcGIS 10
[ URL ]
Source: ESRI. Organising raster data using ArcGIS 10. Redlands: ESRI Virtual Campus. <http://training.esri.com/gateway/index.cfm?fa=catalog.webCourseDetail&courseid=2044> URL last accessed 6-11-2011.

Orif you are working with ArcGIS 9.3 then complete the following course.
Working with Rasters
[ URL ]
Source: ESRI. Working with rasters in ArcGIS. Redlands: ESRI Virtual Campus. <http://training.esri.com/acb2000/showdetl.cfm?DID=6&Product_ID=822> URL last accessed 6-11-2011.
Task You can now explore in greater detail how some of the techniques identified by Buckley are implemented on datasets that employ a vector or raster data model. These notes come from Training Modules on the Applications of Geographic Information Systems, part of Module 2: Data Management Systems of the IODE Data Management Resource Kit.
Spatial Relationships in Vector Systems
[ URL ]

Source: UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, 2004. The International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange Resource Kit. URL last validated 12-09-2005.

Spatial Relationships in Raster Systems
[ URL ]