Task Watch Mike Goodchild's lecture in which he introduces fundamentals of space-time-attribute and presents GIS as a tool for communication.
An Introduction to GIS
[ URL ]
Source: Goodchild M, 2002. An Introduction to GIS. Lecture presented at the Summer Workshop on Spatial Pattern Analysis in a GIS Environment, University of California, Santa Barbara. <http://www.csiss.org/streaming_video/2002/spa .html> URL last accessed 8-11-2006.
Task Your task is to summarise the process of creating a computer representation of the 'real world'. Attend the lecture and read Longley et al. (2001).
Geographic Data Modelling
[ pdf ]
Source: Longley PA, Goodchild MF, Maguire DJ and Rhind DW, 2001. Geographic data modelling, Ch 9 in Geographic Information Systems and Science. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. p. 184 - 203.
Spatial Data Modelling
[ ppt ]
Source: Trodd N, 2005. Spatial data modelling, GeoImaging and GeoInformatics.
Task Identify the characteristics of different data models and data structures and then evaluate their relative benefits for different applications. You might find it helpful to examine some of the data models that have been created in recent years by the GIS professional user community.
Spatial Data Models and Spatial Data Structures
[ pdf ]

Source: Trodd N, 2005. Spatial data models and structures, GeoImaging and GeoInformatics.

Structures: GIS Data Models
[ URL ]
Source: UNESCO, 1999. Cartographic and GIS data structures, in Module D in GIS Training Modules. IOC International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange Programme. URL last accessed 21-11-2006.
Geodatabase Schemas and Data Models for GIS Users
[ URL ]
Source: ESRI, 2005. Data Models. <http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis /geodatabase/about/data-models.html> URL last validated 20-09-2005.
Task What is Michael Gould's thinking behind his statement in 2004 that "a digital map is merely (sorry guys) an ephemeral graphical representation of the filtering and combination of certain geospatial objects from the database, (this) is still not widely understood or accepted" (by many national mapping agencies - the Ordnance Survey being one exception).
Human Cognition of the Spatial World
[ URL ]
Source: Montello D, 1997. Human cognition of the spatial world, Unit 06 in NCGIA Core Curriculum in GIS. Santa Barbara: National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, University of California. <http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu /giscc/units /u006/u006.html> URL last accessed 14-11-2006.
Cartographic Communication
[ URL ]
Source: Cartographic communication, Geographer's Craft. <http://www.colorado .edu /geography/gcraft/notes /cartocom/cartocom_f.html> URL last accessed 14-10-2006
Task Geographers are familiar with maps as a means of communication. Review the articles by Joe Berry to identify emerging methods of geovisualisation. This is also an opportune moment to reflect on why (too) many decision-makers place great faith in the maps and other products they are working with. Why? Because the results are presented using bright, colourful maps with sharply defined boundaries and no indication of errors; because the results may be the product of several months worth of computer based analysis; because the organisation has invested considerable amounts of money in setting up their GIS unit, decision-makers are predisposed to believe what their GIS tells them.
Landscape Visualization
[ URL ] [ pdf ]

Source: Berry JK, 2000. Landscape visualisation. Topic 12 in Map Analysis. <http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/MapAnalysis/Topic12/Topic12.htm> URL last accessed 14-11-2006.

How To Lie With Maps Source: Monmonier M, 1991. How to lie with maps. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.