Task Develop a framework for ideas in GIS. Read this overview that was written by James Petch and has been modified by Nigel Trodd. In it you are advised to explore several definitions of GIS and guided to an article by Charles Convis (1996). In his thoughts on the nature of GIS Convis takes a slightly different approach but retains the main idea of GIS being a combination of human, technical and theoretical components, which work in concert.

A Framework for Ideas on GIS
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Source: Trodd N, 2005. A Framework for Ideas on GIS. Modified from Petch J, unknown. UNIGIS: Manchester.
The Nature of GIS
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Source: Convis C, 1996. The Nature of Geographic Information Systems. ESRI Conservation Program Seminar Series. <http://www.conservationgis.org/ gishistory/gishistry2.html> URL last accessed 30-10-2007.

Task GIS has a history and we can use that to test our ideas of a framework for GIS. Read Longley et al. (2001) and explore the GIS Timeline to identify key events in the development and growth of GIS from the 1960's to the present day. How well can you categorise the Major Events That Shaped GIS using the ideas contained in your framework?

A Brief History of GIS
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Source: Longley PA, Goodchild MF, Maguire DJ and Rhind DW, 2001. Geographic Information Systems and Science. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. p. 10 - 13.

GiS TiMELine
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Source: Dodge M, Doyle S, Haklay M and Rana S, 2000. The GIS Timeline. London: Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London. <http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/gistimeline/> URL last accessed 2006-10-02. Note: only the Quick Search by decade was working when last accessed.

Major Events That Shaped GIS
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Source: Longley PA, Goodchild MF, Maguire DJ and Rhind DW, 2001. Geographic Information Systems and Science. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. p. 12 - 13.
Task Your task is to identify the presence of the components of GIS in different case studies and assess the relative importance of each component to a case study.
A Portfolio of GIS Case Studies
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Task Read the Introduction to Longley et al. (2001) and complete the e-Tutorial on what you have read.
Why Does GIS Matter?
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Source: Longley PA, Goodchild MF, Maguire DJ and Rhind DW, 2001. Geographic Information Systems and Science. Wiley, Chichester, UK. Pp. 2-9.

e-Tutorial: Characterising Geographical Problems
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