Task How do we solve problems? What is a decision support system? How does it work? How is it made spatial? Your task is to answer these questions by working through these documents.
Solving Problems and Making Decisions
[ ppt ]
Source: Trodd N, 2005. Solving problems and making decisions.
Spatial Decision Support Systems
[ URL ] [ pdf ]
Source: Densham P.J., 1991. Spatial decision support systems, Ch 26 in Maguire et al. (eds) Geographical Information Systems: Principles and applications. Harlow, UK: Longman.
Knowledge-Based Approaches in GIS
[ URL ] [ pdf ]
Source: Smith TR and Jiang Y, 1991. Knowledge-based approaches in GIS, Ch 27 in Maguire et al. (eds) Geographical Information Systems: Principles and Applications. Harlow, UK: Longman.
Spatial Decision Support Systems
[ URL ]
Source: Malczewski J, 1997. Spatial decision support systems, Unit 127 of the NCGIA Core Curriculum in Geographic Information Science. <http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/giscc/units/u127/> URL last accessed 21-02-2008.
Task There are various methods to make a decision and numerous tools have been developed to support a decision-maker. Your task is to review some of the more common approaches used in GIS and compare them to other tools used in business. You should understand the principles and use the practical exercises and worked examples to develop a capacity to apply these techniques.
Hypothesis Testing
[ pdf ]
Source: Longley PA, Goodchild MF, Maguire DJ and Rhind DW, 2001. Hypothesis testing, Ch 14 Section 14.4 in Geographic Information Systems & Science. Chichester: Wiley. Pp. 319-322.
Optimization and Hypothesis Testing
[ URL ]
Source: ESRI Virtual Campus, unknown. Optimization & hypothesis testing, module 5 of the course Turning Data Into Information. <http://training.esri.com/acb2000/showdetl.cfm?DID=6&Product_ID=821> URL last accessed 21-02-2008.
  Dempster-Schafer Theory tbc
Multi-Criteria Evaluation
[ pdf ]
Source: Clark Labs, 2001. Decision support: decision strategy analysis, Ch 1 in Guide to GIS and Image Processing Volume 2, Massachussetts: Clark Labs.
Multi Criteria Evaluation and Multi Objective Land Allocation
[ pdf ]
Source: Dragan M, Feoli E, Fernetti M, Zerihun W, 2003. Application of a spatial decision support system (SDSS) to reduce soil erosion in northern Ethiopia, Environmental Modelling and Software, 18, 861 - 868.
Business Tools
[ URL ]
Source: Mindtools, unknown. Problem solving and decision making techniques. <http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TMC.htm> URL last accessed 21-02-2008.
Task A growing number of studies have utilised participatory GIS (PGIS) approaches to engage groups of people, sometimes members of the public, at other times their representatives, in decision-making using a GIS-based environment. Your task is to explore the principles on which successful PGIS have been developed and compare them to traditional techniques.
Delineating Public and Participation in PPGIS
[ pdf ]
Source: Schlossberg M and Shuford E, 2005. Delineating “Public” and “Participation” in PPGIS, URISA Journal, 16, 15-26.
Strategies for PGIS Use
[ pdf ]
Source: Nyerges T, Jankowski P and Drew C, 2002. Data-gathering strategies for social-behavioural research about participatory geographical information system use, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 16, 1-22.
Groupware and Public Participation for Urban Planning
[ pdf ]
Source: Laurini R, 2001. Groupware and public participation for urban planning, Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on the Role of Information Technology for and in Urban Planning, Vienna, Austria, February 14-16, 2001, pp. 17-30.
Group Decision Support for Spatial Planning
[ pdf ]
Source: Voss A, Voss H, Gatalsky P, Oppor L, 2002. Group decision support for spatial planning, Proceedings of Urban Data Management Symposium.
A Research Agenda for PGIS
[ pdf ]
Source: Carver S, 2003. The future of participatory approaches using geographic information: developing a research agenda for the 21st century, URISA Journal, 61-71.
Task As there are so many instances in which GIS is used to make decisions your final task is to review the literature for case studies in your preferred application domain. Have fun!