Task Before we consider how a decision is made using GIS we must identify who is making that decision. This is because the involvement of stakeholders is essential for the specification of relevant decision-support tools. Your task is to examine some typical decision-making scenarios and then use the documents to identify policy-makers and end-users, their roles in the decision-making process, how they communicate and the issues they perceive as important - what are their information requirements?
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Source: Smallworld, 2007. Download the Spatial Intelligence animated demonstration. <http://www.gepower.com/prod_serv/products/gis_software/en/spatial_int.htm> URL last accessed 12-01-2007.

Uses, Users, Messages and Media
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Source: Longley PA, Goodchild MF, Maguire DJ and Rhind DW, 2001. Introduction: uses, users, messages and media, Ch 12 Section 12.1 in Geographic Information Systems and Science. New York: Wiley. pp. 248-251.

Integrated Environmental Decision Making
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Source: Oxley T, McIntosh BS, Winder N, Mulligan M and Engelen G, 2004. Integrated modelling and decision-support tools: a Mediterranean example, Environmental Modelling and Software, 19, 999 - 1010.