Task Your task is to extend your competencies in ArcGIS by working through some exercises using two ArcGIS extensions - Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst. As well as extending developing skills in map algebra and proximity analysis you should consider how they help you to visualise and explore patterns in spatial data.

Displaying Data, Symbolizing and Analyzing 3D Data
[ URL ]

Source: ESRI Virtual Campus. Modules 1, 2 and 3 of Learning ArcGIS 3D Analyst. <http://training.esri.com/acb2000/showdetl.cfm?DID=6&Product_ID=894 > URL last accessed 11-02-2011.

Analyzing Surfaces

Mapping Distance
[ URL ]

Source: ESRI Virtual Campus. Modules 1, 2 and 5a of Learning ArcGIS Spatial Analyst. <http://training.esri.com/acb2000/showdetl.cfm?DID=6&Product_ID=877> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
Task ArcGIS provides access to powerful analytical tools, including specialist extensions. However, is there more to spatial analysis than this? What can't a desktop GIS do? Your task is to compare the analytical functionality of ArcGIS and some of its' extensions to other software applications.

Selected (free) ArcGIS extensions
CommunityViz
[ URL ]
Source: Placeways CommunityViz, 2010. Free 30 day trial for ArcGIS 10. <http://placeways.com/communityviz/> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
CrimeAnalyst
[ URL ]
Source: GeoComm GeoLynx Crime Analyst, 2010. Free 30 day trial for ArcGIS 10. <http://www.geo-comm.com/store.php> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
Digital Shoreline Analysis System
[ URL ]
Source: USGS. The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). <http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/DSAS/index.htm> URL last accessed 14-02-2011.
Geospatial Modelling Environment
[ URL ]
Source: Beyer, H. Formerly known as Hawth's Tools, GME is now delivered as a stand-alone application that uses ArcGIS in the background for some functionality.  <http://www.spatialecology.com/gme/> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
HAZUS
[ URL ]
Source: Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazards US Multi-Hazard. <http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/hazus/index.shtm> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
TAPES-G
[ URL ]
Source: Chen H. and Wilson J, 2004. TapesG-ArcGIS: Terrain Analysis Programs for the Environmental Sciences. This has been implemented as an ArcGIS script that runs inside ArcGIS 9.x geoprocessing framework. <http://arcscripts.esri.com/details.asp?dbid=13759> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
TauDEM
[ URL ]
Source: Tarboton DG, 2004. Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models The TauDEM ArcGIS Graphical User Interface (GUI) is compatible with ArcGIS 9.3.1 but not ArcGIS 10. The underlying TauDEM 5 command line functions, however, are not dependent on ESRI functionality so will work on any Windows PC (XP, Vista, 7) with or without ArcGIS. <http://hydrology.usu.edu/taudem/taudem5.0/> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.

Desktop GIS with sophisticated analytical functions
CommonGIS
[ URL ]
Source: Frauenhofer IAIS, 2008. <http://www.iais.fraunhofer.de/index.php?id=1863&L=1> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
GRASS
[ URL ]
Source: Geographic Resources Analysis Support System. <http://grass.itc.it/> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
IDRISI
[ URL ]
Source: Clark Labs, 2009. <http://www.clarklabs.org/> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
ILWIS
[ URL ]
Source: Integrated Land and Water Information System. <http://www.ilwis.org/> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
QGIS
[ URL ]
Source: Quantum GIS Project, 2009. <http://www.qgis.org/> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
uDig
[ URL ]
Source: User-friendly Desktop Internet GIS Project. <http://udig.refractions.net/> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.

Selected (free) software for spatial analysis
CrimeStat
[ URL ]
Source: Levine, N & Associates, 2007. A spatial statistics program for the analysis of crime incident locations <http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/CRIMESTAT/> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
GeoDa
[ URL ]
Source: Anselin L, 2005. <http://geodacenter.asu.edu/software> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
FRAGSTATS
[ URL ]
Source: McGarigal K, Cushman SA, Neel MC and Ene E, 2002. Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Categorical Maps <http://www.umass.edu/ landeco/research/fragstats/fragstats.html> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
LandSerf
[ URL ]
Source: Wood J, 2007. <http://www.landserf.org/> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.

PCRaster
[ URL ]

Source: Utrecht University, 2008. PCRaster Environmental Modelling language <http://pcraster.geo.uu.nl/> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
R
[ URL ]
Source: The R Project for Statistical Computing, 2010. <http://www.r-project.org/> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
SAGA
[ URL ]
Source: Bohner J, Conrad O, Kothe R and Ringeler A, 2007. System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses <http://www.saga-gis.org/en/index.html> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
SaTScan
[ URL ]
Source: Kulldorf M, 2005. Software for the spatial, temporal, and space-time scan statistics <http://www.satscan.org/> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
Task
Your task is to explain the meaning of some spatial concepts and exemplify their consequences for spatial analysis: Scale, Spatial Dependency, Spatial Autocorrelation, Modifiable Area Unit Problem
The Scale Issue in Social and Natural Sciences
[ pdf ]
Source: Marceau DJ, 1999. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 25 (4), 347-356.
Investigating Spatial Dependency
[ URL ] [ pdf ]
Source: Berry JK, Investigating spatial dependency. Topic 8 in Map Analysis. <http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/MapAnalysis/Topic8/Topic8.htm> URL last accessed 4-12-2007.
Concepts in Spatial Analysis
[ pdf ]
Source: Trodd N, 2006. Concepts in spatial analysis:including spatial dependency, spatial autocorrelation and the modifiable area unit problem.
Spatial Data Analysis of Areas
[ URL ] [ pdf ]
Source: Camara G and Carvalho M, 2005. Spatial data analysis of areas: a Tutorial on Spatial Data Analysis, Germany: University of Muenster. <http://www .dpi.inpe.br/gilberto/tutorials/spatial_analysis/spatial_analysis_areas.pdf> URL last accessed 8-11-2006.
Task

Once we understand the various spatial concepts that underlie spatial analysis we can think about exploiting them in our quest to derive useful information. Exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), or the use of statistics to better understand a spatial dataset, is popular in fields such as public policy analysis, marketing, social science, epidemiology, and geology. Ultimately, all ESDA is driven by a desire to discover the secrets hidden by incomplete or uncertain data - a situation that occurs almost all of the time with GIS. Your task is to read these documents to understand a range of ESDA techniques and plan their use in analysing geographical data. You might like to investigate spatial interpolation as one such technique.

Spatial Statistics in ArcGIS 9
[ URL ]

Source: ESRI Training Seminar on Understanding Spatial Statistics in ArcGIS 9. <http://training.esri.com/acb2000/showdetl.cfm?DID=6&Product_ID=852> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.

Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis
[ URL ]
Source: Haining R and Wise S, 1997. Exploratory spatial data analysis. Unit 128 in NCGIA Core Curriculum in GIScience. <http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/giscc/units /u128/u128_f.html> URL last accessed 11-02-2011.
The Effect of Alternative Representations of Population Location on the Areal Interpolation of Air Pollution Exposure
[ pdf ]
Source: Brindley P, Wise SM, Maheswaran R and Haining RP, 2005. The effect of alternative representations of population location on the areal interpolation of air pollution exposure, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 29, 455–469.