There are numerous operators that can be applied to individual layers of data. Some can be applied to points, lines and areas and others to networks and surfaces. You may find that there are too many operators to remember in one go so whilst you can explore these materials don't be afraid to revisit them as required.  
     
 
Task Your task is to explore proximity analysis, including distance and buffer operators.
Proximity Analysis
[ pdf ]
Source: Trodd N, 2005. Proximity analysis. You should complete the e-tutorial exercises.
e-Tutorial: Buffer Operations on a Raster Data Model
[ URL ]
Source: Klinkenberg B, 2006. Simple demonstrations of fundamental GIS operations: buffer. <http://www.geog.ubc.ca/courses/klink/java/java_examples.html> URL last accessed 4-12-2007.
Vector Buffering
[ URL ]
Source: Ellis F, 2001. Buffering, in GIS Self Learning Tool, University of Melbourne. <http://www.sli.unimelb.edu.au/gisweb/BuffersModule/BuffModule.htm> URL last accessed 4-12-2007.
Variable-Width Buffers
[ URL ] [ pdf ]
Source: Berry JK, 2000. Creating variable-width buffers, Topic 13 in Map Analysis. <http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/MapAnalysis/Topic13/Topic13.htm> URL last accessed 4-12-2007.
Task Spatially contiguous zones can be created by merging adjacent polygons or grouping together adjacent cells. In many cases the raster cells will have been reclassified by mapping their attributes from one set of values to another set of values prior to grouping. What else can you discover about these operators?
Reclass and Group Raster Cells
[ URL ]
Source: Klinkenberg B, 2006. Simple demonstrations of fundamental GIS operations: grouping. <http://www.geog.ubc.ca/courses/klink/java/java_examples.html> URL last accessed 08-01-2007.
Raster Reclassification (hints of Overlay)
[ URL ]
Source: Ellis F, 2001. Reclassification, in GIS Self Learning Tool, University of Melbourne. <http://www.sli.unimelb.edu.au/gisweb/RSAModule/RSASelect.htm> URL last accessed 08-01-2007.
Connectivity Analysis
[ pdf ]
Source: Trodd N, 2005. Connectivity analysis: contiguity and spreading (in preparation).
Task Your task is to understand the calculation of friction (cost) surfaces and the computation of least-cost pathways across those surfaces.

Distance Surfaces
[ URL ]

Source: ESRI Virtual Campus. Mapping distance, Module 5 Part A of Learning ArcGIS Spatial Analyst. <http://training.esri.com/acb2000/showdetl.cfm?DID=6&Product_ID=877> URL last accessed 2-12-2007.
Retail Sales Competition Analysis
[ pdf ]
Source: Berry JK and Reed KL, 2006. Retail sales competition analysis, GeoWorld, March.
Task Networks have their own topological properties and network analysis is a specialist area within spatial analysis. Find out more.
Topology
[ pdf ]
Source: Trodd N, 2005. What is topology? Adapted from Wise S, 2002. GIS Basics. London: Taylor & Francis. Pp. 32-33.
Network Analysis
[ pdf ]
Source: Trodd N, 2005. Network analysis.
Hazardous Materials Route Planning
[ pdf ]
Source: Huang B, Cheu RL and Liew YS, 2004. GIS and genetic algorithms for HAZMAT route planning with security considerations, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 18, 769 - 787.
Route Choice in Urban Road Networks
[ pdf ]
Source: Wu Y-H, Miller H and Hung M-C, 2001. A GIS-based decision support system for analysis of route choice in congested urban road networks, Journal of Geographical Systems, 3, 3-24.
Task Neighbourhood analysis involves either a focal or zonal operator. Your task is to explain the difference and exemplify their uses.
Focal Operations Source: Ellis F, 2001. Neighbourhood analysis, in GIS Self Learning Tool, University of Melbourne. <http://www.sli.unimelb.edu.au/gisweb/NOModule/NOSelect.htm> URL last accessed 08-01-2007.

Neighbourhood and Zonal Statistics
[ URL ]

Source: ESRI Virtual Campus. Using cell, neighborhood and zonal statistics, Module 6 of Learning ArcGIS Spatial Analyst. <http://training.esri.com/acb2000/showdetl.cfm?DID=6&Product_ID=877> URL last accessed 2-12-2007.
Task Your task is to understand how first- and second-order derivatives of surfaces are calculated.
Terrain analysis: Slope algorithm, plus theory of aspect and viewshed Source: Ellis F, 2001. Terrain analysis, in GIS Self Learning Tool, University of Melbourne. <http://www.sli.unimelb.edu.au/gisweb/DEMModule/DEMSelect.htm> URL last accessed 08-01-2007.

Terrain Analysis: Raster Surfaces
[ URL ]

Source: ESRI Virtual Campus. Calculating raster surfaces, Module 5 of Learning ArcGIS 3D Analyst. <http://training.esri.com/acb2000/showdetl.cfm?DID=6&Product_ID=894> URL last accessed 2-12-2007.
Morphometric Analysis
[ pdf ]
Source: Grohmann CH, 2004. Morphometric analysis in geographic information systems: applications of free software GRASS and R, Computers & Geosciences, 30, 1055 - 1067.
Terrain Analysis Source: Wilson JP and Gallant JC (eds), ???? Terrain Analysis: Principles and Applications, New York: Wiley. In this book operators developed in the Terrain Analysis Programs for Environmental Sciences are applied to the study of geomorphologic problems.
Data Modelling in GIS - Lessons from the Analysis of Digital Elevation Models
[ pdf ]
Source: Wise S, 2000. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 14 (4), 313 - 318.

An editorial on the effects of different interpolation algorithms and analytical algorithms on DEM results.